ruminant production systems in Ethiopia. Defining production system is a base for genetic improvement of farm animals
with a sound breeding objective. Farmers in different production systems have different trait preferences due to the
From the country’s total goat populations, Oromia regional state had 8.59 million heads of goat (CSA, 2018). As the
study area, Jimma zone share large goat population in which goats play a major role for the smallholder farmers. Despite
their importance, information provided on goat production system and husbandry practices specific to the study districts
was very few till yet. Accordingly, assessing these goat production systems is vital to deliver documented information and
it is a pre-requisite for proper breeding program. Therefore, this study was assessed to identify goat production systems
and husbandry practices in the study area.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The current study was conducted in three districts (Limu Seka, Nono Benja and Omo Nada) of Jimma zone, Oromia
Regional State of Ethiopia. The zone lies between 350 -370´ E longitudes and 70- 80´ N latitude at an elevation ranging
from 880 to 3360 meters above sea level.
Sampling and data collection procedures
Multi-stage sampling techniques were applied to select districts and kebeles for the study. At the first stage out of
the twenty districts, three districts (Limu Seka, Omo Nada and Nono Benja) were purposively selected based on their goat
population potential. In the second stage, four, three and two kebeles were purposively and proportionally selected from
Limu Seka, Omo Nada and Nono Benja districts, respectively. Moreover, care was taken to select representative sample
size by considering goat flock size of at least two females and one male goat per household and willingness of households
to participate in the study. In the third stage, the number of households from each selected kebeles was determined
according to the proportionate sampling technique. The sample size of 210 households was determined according to the
Arsham (2007), using the following formula: N = 0.25/SE2 where: N = sample size, SE = standard error (0.0345) with 95%
confidence level. In the sampling process, households those keep at least three matured goats were considered.
Accordingly, one focal group discussion was held per kebele including key informants. In the study, both primary and
secondary data were used.
Questionnaires and group discussion
General information list of FAO (2012), was used as a checklist in designing the questionnaire. Trained enumerators
along with the researcher administrated the semi-structured questionnaires to the sampled households. General
information of the area, topography, climatic data, and population size were obtained from secondary data. Participatory
focus group discussion with goat owners, elderly farmers, village leaders were also made. The questionnaire was designed
to address the description of the production environment (general household characteristics, goat flock size and farming
activities) and goat husbandry practices like feeding, watering, housing, castration and fattening practices of households
in the study area were assessed. Moreover, constraints of goat production were also assessed.
General household characteristics
The family size, household age, sex, educational level, age structure and marital statuses of households in the study
districts are presented in Table 1. The overall family size in the study area is 7.10. There was a significant difference
(P<0.05) in the average family size of respondents between districts. Average family size was significantly higher in Omo
Nada district than Nono Benja and Limu Seka districts. The overall households’ age in the study area was 44.89 years
with majority (90.5%) of the households were male headed. In the study area, the sampled households had different
educational backgrounds in which majority (73.8%) of them were illiterate. A higher proportion of the households ranged
within an age of 31 to 40 years (44.3%). The study further revealed that the majority (91.4%) of the respondents were
Goat flock size and farming activities
The current result showed that all respondents across all districts were practicing both livestock and crop production.
The overall mean goats flock size per household was 7.78 (Table 2). There was a significant difference between districts
in goat population (P<0.05). Respondents in Nono Benja had significantly lower number of goats than Omo Nada and
Limu Seka districts. There was significant difference between districts (P<0.05) on the suckling male kid, weaned male
kid less than one year and castrated goat which was higher in Limu Seka district. In the study area, males accounted for
about 30.2% and females 69.8% of the total flock. In the study area, matured female greater than one year constituted
43.8% of the whole population while matured males of the same age were only 7.2% of the population. The ratio between
matured male greater than one-year age and their female counterparts was accordingly 1:6.
Citation: Yemane G, Melesse A, Taye M (2020). Evaluation of production systems and husbandry practices of Ethiopian indigenous goats. Online J. Anim. Feed Res.,