Volume 11, Issue 2: 52-56; March 25, 2021  
Burkholderia sp. Strain HF.7  
HAFSAN1 , Aminah HAJAH THAHA2, Asmuddin NATSIR3 and Ahyar AHMAD4  
1Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin, Sultan Alauddin Street, Gowa 92118, Indonesia  
2Animal Science Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin, Sultan Alauddin Street, Gowa 92118, Indonesia  
3Department of Nutrition and Animal Feed, Faculty of Animal Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Perintis Kemerdekaan Street Km. 10 Tamalanrea, Makassar 90245,  
4Chemistry Department, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Perintis Kemerdekaan Street Km. 10 Tamalanrea, Makassar 90245,  
Email: hafsan.bio@uin-alauddin.ac.id;  
Supporting Information  
ABSTRACT: Feed formulation with phytase supplementation is an innovation in the feed industry to improve  
monogastric feed quality without increasing production costs. This study aims to determine the carcass  
weight of broilers and the percentage of internal organs by providing various feeds, including those  
supplemented with phytase in phytase units (FTU) from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7. A completely  
randomized experimental design was used in this study, using 108 broilers for five weeks of maintenance in  
three treatments with six replicas, each replica consisting of six broilers. The experimental feed given to  
broilers was basal feed without phytase supplementation (P1), basal feed + 750 FTU phytase (P2) and  
commercial feed (P3), each with the category of starter phase and finisher phase. Carcass weight and  
percentage of organs in broilers (liver, heart, gizzard, and lymph) were measured in each treatment unit. The  
results showed that broilers that consumed phytase supplemented feed had a higher carcass weight with a  
lower feed conversion value than broilers fed basal feed without phytase. These findings also indicate that  
the addition of phytase from Burkholderia sp. HF.7 strain at 750 FTU/kg feeds does not interfere with the  
organs of broilers' physiological function because of no increase in the percentage of the liver, heart, gizzard,  
and lymph.  
Keywords: Broiler, Burkholderia, Internal organs, Performance, Phytase.  
Broiler farming is a prospective productive farming and the increase of nutrient conscious and public consumption of food  
Bailey, 2019). One of the essential and economic aspects of broiler maintenance is feed (Tallentire et al., 2016). The  
content and availability of nutrients determine feed quality to meet broilers' needs during the maintenance period (Wenk,  
2000; Abdollahi et al., 2013). Various feed formulations have been arranged in such a way to achieve maximum  
productivity (Daghir, 2009; Santoso, 2012; Krishnasamy et al., 2015). This effort, feed cost is one of the main obstacles of  
broiler production. Recently, various efforts have made in order to find ways to reduce feed costs.  
One effort that can accomplish in order to improve the feed quality while reducing the production cost is adding feed  
additive which is a material or combination of ingredients (Tallentire et al., 2016). The supplementation of phytase is  
efforts that can be an option in innovative feed formulation to improve the nutritional value of broiler feed through  
improving nutrient utilization; increase utilization of phosphorus and calcium in the feed (Augspurger et al., 2003; Aureli  
et al., 2011; Hafsan et al., 2017), amino acid absorption (Cowieson et al., 2004) and the ability to digest feed ingredients  
(Rutherfurd et al., 2012). Increase utilization of nutrients by phytase in performing the phosphate group release function  
of the Mio-inositol ring on phytate compounds which the main form of phosphorus storage in broiler is feed ingredients.  
The phosphate group's release implies the release of other essential proteins and minerals bound to the phytate complex,  
hence its availability in the feed has a unique effect (Hirvonen et al., 2019).  
The usage of phytase with high stability to temperature and pH at specific dosage has reported significantly  
calcium, magnesium and iron lead to absorbed nutrients increased in metabolic and biosynthetic processes, affected of  
higher energy retention leading to increased broiler performance (Cowieson et al., 2006; Selle et al., 2000). Indicators of  
broiler metabolic processes reflected in a good performance as well as lead to excellent carcass properties and a  
balanced percentage of internal organs (Angel et al., 2006; Çimrin and Demirel, 2008) as a result of increased availability  
of phosphate, higher nitrogen retention and increased solubility of phytate complexes in the digestive tract of broilers  
Citation: Hafsan, Hajah Thaha A, Natsir A and Ahmad A (2021). Performance, carcass and internal organs characterizes of broiler chickens with phytase  
supplementation from Burkholderia sp. Strain HF.7. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(2): 52-56. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.9  
(Shirley and Edwards, 2003). The maximum utilization of nutrients such as protein, phosphorus, and calcium by broilers is  
the increased performance indicated by weight gain at harvest. Besides, feed conversion value will decrease due to the  
maximum absorption of nutrients (Humer et al., 2015; Savita et al., 2017; Maas et al., 2021). Anti-nutritional substances,  
including phytic acid, will cause the digestive organs to work longer to cause physiological disorders, including the  
digestive organs' weight. Therefore, this study reveals the effect of phytase giving by Burkholderia sp. Strain HF.7 (Hafsan  
et al., 2018) on the profile of broilers' internal organs.  
This study was an experimental study using complete randomized design, namely three treatments with six replications.  
The variables observed in this study were the appearance of broiler production, which included carcass weight and  
percentage of internal organs (liver, heart, gizzard, and lymph). Day Old Chick (DOC) broiler Cobb strain used without  
separating males and females (unsexed). Maintenance performed for five weeks. The cage used roofed with a litter  
system with dimensions is 250 × 250 × 80 cm, which is equipped with lighting and functions to warm the cage. Ten  
broilers occupied each plot. The cage equipment used was two feedings vessel of 500 g and drinking water containers of  
500 mL capacity. Measurement of the temperature and humidity of the cage environment using a thermometer and  
thermo hygrometer. The average temperature of the cage was 27.69°C, and the average humidity was 75.88%. Feed and  
drinking water were given in ad libitum every morning, afternoon and evening based on treatment. Phytase powder from  
Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 was added to every 5 kg of feed a homogenized before fed the broiler. Treatment feed was  
given based on the maintenance period, namely starter and finisher.  
Feed experiments using three types of feed. The basal feed used in this study was obtained from conventional feed  
mills. The ingredients of the basal feed composition are yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, Meat and Bone Meal,  
coconut oil, CaCO3, dicalcium phosphate, DL-methionine, L-Lysine, premix. A basal feed with the composition is used as  
P1 feed and basal feed supplemented with 750 FTU of Burkholderia strain HF.7 as P2. A comparison feed (P3) shows  
that commercial feed is obtained from one Poultry shop in Makassar, without knowing its ingredients. The chemical  
composition of the fodder with its nutritional content is presented in Table 1.  
Table 1 Composition and nutrient of broiler feed ingredients.  
Starter (%)  
Finisher (%)  
Feed Composition  
Rice bran  
Soybean meal  
Meat and bone meal  
Coco oil  
Dicalcium phosphate  
Total (%)  
Chemical composition  
Phytase (FTU/kg)  
Crude Protein  
Raw fat  
Metabolic energy (Kl/kg)  
P1 = basal feed without phytase; P2 = basal feed + 750 FTU phytase; P3 = commercial feed; FTU=phytase units.  
Ethical approval  
This research was conducted in accordance with the recommendations of research ethics approval using animal  
subject by Health Research Ethics Committee of Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin Makassar, referred to Legislation of  
the Republic of Indonesia No. 18, 2009.  
Statistical analysis  
The gathered data is analyzed with analyzed with ANOVA of Complete Randomized Design. Estimated conversion of  
feed consumed by broilers is determined by calculating the ratio between the amount of feed consumed and the resulting  
weight gain. Bodyweight gain was calculated from the chicken's weight last week minus the initial bodyweight of the  
chicken. Percentage determination of internal organ was obtained from dividing internal organ weight by broiler's live  
weight in 100% after fat dismissing.  
Citation: Hafsan, Hajah Thaha A, Natsir A and Ahmad A (2021). Performance, carcass and internal organs characterizes of broiler chickens with phytase  
supplementation from Burkholderia sp. Strain HF.7. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(2): 52-56. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.9  
As a parameter to determine feed quality, the feed conversion value of each type of feed treated was determined  
beforehand by compared between the amount of feed consumed with broiler body weight gain during maintenance has  
ended. Feed conversion value indicates the level of feed efficiency, meaning the lower the value of feed conversion, the  
higher the feed efficiency and more economical. Figure 1 shows that the average value of feed conversion produced in  
this study was 1.922 - 2.591.  
Variance analysis has shown very significant differences between treatments (P<0.01). The basal feed which was  
not added phytase (P1) was indicated to produce a significantly high feed conversion compared to other treatments. P2  
feed given to broiler shows the lowest feed conversion value and relatively similar (not significantly different) to P3. This  
disparity indicates that the best feed conversion obtained in P2 with the addition of 750 FTU of Burkholderia sp. strain  
HF.7. However, statistically, there is no significant difference from the commercial feed, which has been used extensively  
by farmers. The lowest feed conversion rate among these treatments (1.922) has provided an optimal description of this  
broiler's digestive system in converting 1.922 kg of feed into 1 kg of the carcass. According to (Dos Santos et al., 2013;  
Liu et al., 2014), the lower feed conversion rates indicate that broilers are better at converting feed into meat and feed  
can be said to be of good quality. This study has proven to indicate that the lowest feed conversion rate by giving 750  
FTU/kg phytase from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 has improved broiler metabolism. Feed nutrition is increased in  
availability can metabolism. The feed can optimally be converting to meat.  
The percentage determination of carcass and organ in broilers with a basal diet without phytase additives, feed with  
phytase supplementation from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 as a feed additive, and commercial feed for five weeks of  
maintenance is present in Table 2.  
2 - Value of feed conversion with broiler  
Figure 1 - Broiler body weight gain (g/broiler) with broiler  
maintenance for 35 days: P1 (basal feed without phytase);  
P2 (basal feed + 750 FTU phytase); and P3 (commercial  
maintenance for 35 days: P1 (basal feed without phytase);  
P2 (basal feed + 750 FTU phytase); and P3 (commercial  
Table 2 - Average and standard percentage of broiler’s carcass and weight of internal organs.  
Carcass weight  
Liver (%)  
61.2 ± 0.934 a  
2.116 ± 0.926  
0.803 ± 0.086  
2.016 ± 0.752  
1.503 ± 0.284  
69.6 ± 0.842 b  
2.021 ± 0.450  
0.792 ± 0.065  
1.902 ± 0.784  
1.533 ± 0.857  
69.2 ± 1.011 b  
1.995 ± 0.264  
0.798 ± 0.035  
1.899 ± 0.881  
1.592 ± 0.721  
Heart (%)  
Gizzard (%)  
Lymph (%)  
Different superscript in the same line shows a significant effect (P<0.05); P1 = basal feed without phytase; P2 = basal feed + 750 FTU  
phytase; P3 = commercial feed.  
The difference in broiler growth between treatments P1 and P2 is caused by the occurrence of protein and mineral  
metabolic disorders which one of the causes is the presence of phytate as in table 1. Addition of 750 FTU / kg phytase  
Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 in feed, significantly increased the growth of broiler experiments (P<0.01) and this fact  
strengthens the results of some study, that increased growth of broilers that received feed with the addition of phytase  
showed significant weight gain (Augspurger et al., 2003; Cowieson et al., 2006; Rutherfurd et al., 2012; Fernandes et al.,  
2019). A different trend occurred between P2 and P3 treatments, in which different broiler body weight gain is not  
accurate. Bodyweight gain is almost the same as those treatments as in Figure 1 thought to be caused by broilers' ability  
to be about equal in metabolizing feed the body. Feed nutrition is converted into available nutrients. Digestion and  
absorption can occur, and the rest that is not absorbed is excreted in the faeces. If digestible energy is converted into  
metabolic energy that can produce heat and energy for basic life and production activities, the expected growth of broilers  
will always be average and as expected (Moss et al., 2019).  
Citation: Hafsan, Hajah Thaha A, Natsir A and Ahmad A (2021). Performance, carcass and internal organs characterizes of broiler chickens with phytase  
supplementation from Burkholderia sp. Strain HF.7. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(2): 52-56. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.9  
The carcass is part of broiler’s body after slaughtered and separated from feathers, abdominal fat, internal organs  
except for lungs, kidneys, legs, head, neck, and blood (Çimrin and Demirel, 2008). Carcass weight percentage was  
obtained by dividing carcass weight with broiler life weight. The statistical analysis result in table 2 showed that phytase  
supplementation from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 gave a significant effect (P<0.05) on carcass weight percentage.  
Overall, 750 FTU phytase from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 in each kilogram of feed, increased the carcass weight  
compared with a basal diet without phytase supplementation. These findings are in agreement with Nourmohammadi et  
al. (2010) that there is an increase in carcass weight by the addition of Natuphos phytase to roosters and hens fed with  
low phosphorus levels. some researchers also that phytase in Aspergillus oryzae has a positive effect on carcass weight  
for poultry fed with low phosphorus levels reported (Angel et al., 2006; Ghosh et al., 2016; Akter et al., 2016; Barzegar et  
al., 2020). Similarly, other studies with feed containing low levels of phytate phosphate and various commercial phytase  
levels have a positive effect on carcass weight (Cufadar et al., 2010).  
The positive effect on carcass weight by phytase supplementation is due to the absorption of the maximum  
nutrients in the diet due to the phytase ability to release essential minerals, amino acids, and energy bound from the  
phytate complex of feed (Dersjant-Li et al., 2015). Nutrients in the feed are released and absorbed, so they can be used  
for metabolism and help broilers' growth (te Pas et al., 2020). Hence the role of protein has a very substantial in the  
growth of chicken tissue. Protein absorption ultimately provides faster growth and improves broiler carcass (Kamran et  
al., 2008; Rezaei et al., 2018). The trend of increasing carcass weights shows in the treatment of feeding using the  
commercial feed as in table 2. The improvement shows that the quality of basal feed with phytase supplements equals  
the quality of commercial feed, even without the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), increasing the cost of feed  
production. The study focus also showed that the percentage of carcasses with P2 and P3 feeds meet the usual broiler  
carcass percentage standard of about 65-75% of the weight of live broiler (Aletor et al., 2000).  
Analyses of variance indicate that phytase supplementation from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 as feed additive does  
not affect (P>0.05) the weight percentage of organs in the broiler on liver, heart, gizzard or lymph. The average weight  
percentage of organs in the broiler on each treatment P1, P2, and P3 are list in Table 2. Percentage of liver weight in each  
treatment ranging from 1.9 to 2.2% was in the standard range of the liver's healthy weight percentage (1.7-2.8). The  
percentage of heart weight in each treatment by 0.8% was in the standard range of healthy heart weight percentage of  
0.5 to 1.4. Likewise, the percentage of gizzard and lymph were in the normal range that means the three feed treatments  
did not disturb the equilibrium percentage of liver, heart, stomach, and lymph of broiler. This data also shows that the  
addition of phytase from Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 will not interfere with the broiler organs' physiological function.  
Thus, it is relatively safe to utilize as a feed additive in the future (Sari and Ginting, 2012; Kokoszyński et al., 2017).  
Overall, after the three types of feed in broiler chickens reared for 35 days, feed supplemented with 750 FTU  
phytase/kg to produce the best feed conversion value and directly proportional to the weight of carcass produced.  
Supplementation of phytase has proven that the lower feed conversion rate means better feed quality. The high value of  
feed conversion indicates the need for the amount of feed needed to increase body weight higher and lower feed  
efficiency. The value of feed conversion is closely related to production costs, primarily feed costs, because the higher the  
conversion of feed, the cost of feed will increase because the amount of feed consumed to produce body weight in a  
certain period is higher (McNitt, 1983; Kokoszyński et al., 2017).  
The supplementation of Burkholderia sp. strain HF.7 to 750 FTU/kg of feed may stimulate maximum absorption of  
nutrients, so that carcass weight is greater and decreases feed conversion ratio. Increased carcass weight and do not  
affect the percentage of liver, heart, gizzard, and lymph in the broiler.  
Corresponding Author  
E-mail: hafsan.bio@uin-alauddin.ac.id; ORCİD: 0000-0001-5821-0164  
This study is part of the research obtained from Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin with internal competitive grant.  
We thank the Head of Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, UIN Alauddin Makassar and all research  
teams who have supported this work.  
Authors’ Contribution  
All authors contributed to research conduction, analyzing and writing, equally.  
Conflict of interests  
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests in this work.  
Citation: Hafsan, Hajah Thaha A, Natsir A and Ahmad A (2021). Performance, carcass and internal organs characterizes of broiler chickens with phytase  
supplementation from Burkholderia sp. Strain HF.7. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(2): 52-56. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.9  
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Citation: Hafsan, Hajah Thaha A, Natsir A and Ahmad A (2021). Performance, carcass and internal organs characterizes of broiler chickens with phytase  
supplementation from Burkholderia sp. Strain HF.7. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(2): 52-56. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.9