Volume 11, Issue 2: 63-67; March 25, 2021  
Rusny RUSNY1, Muhammad Nur HIDAYAT1, Ummi KALSUM1 and Mashuri MASRI2*  
1Department of Animal Husbandy, Faculty of Science and Technology, State Islamic University Alauddin Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia  
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, State Islamic University Alauddin Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia  
Email: mashuri.masri@uin-alauddin.ac.id;  
: 0000-0003-1148-7208  
Supporting Information  
ABSTRACT: Jamu (local herbal drinking) have been known for a long time by inhabitants in Indonesia as  
conventional home grown pharmaceutical and to progress digestion system within the body. Jamu, not as it  
were for people but also for creatures. Local farmers have moreover utilized jamu for chicken for a long time,  
and it’s utilize is expanding. This Research points to decide the impact of jamu to extend protein in vivo  
digestibility in broilers and for knowing the ideal level of jamu for optimum protein digestibility in broilers. The  
strategy utilized in this investigate is Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatment and 5  
replications, each redundancy comprises of 1 broiler chickens, so there are 20 chickens. The treatment  
comprises of P0 (control), T1 (jamu 1.5 mL/500 mL), T2 (jamu 2.5 mL/500 mL) and T3 (jamu 3.5 mL/500  
mL). The parameters watched were digestibility protein in broilers. Based on the examination of fluctuation, it  
appears The treatment had no critical impact on chicken protein broilers' digestibility given jamu. However,  
seeing each treatment's average value, T1, T2 and T3 tend to increase to 99.62%, 99.68% and 99.71%,  
respectively. In conclusion, supplemented with jamu formula does not significantly affect broiler chicken  
protein's digestibility, but the digestibility increases with increasing formula, up to the formula 3.5 mL/500  
mL (T3) as the ideal level.  
Keywords: Broiler, Digestibility, Herbal treatment, Jamu, Protein.  
The demand for chicken meat increases along with increasing incomes and awareness of the importance of animal  
protein (Wilkie, 2005). Developing broiler production, and provide commercial feeds has fulfilled legal needs for farmers  
(Variani et al., 2017). Despite the price relatively expensive because some of the ingredients are still imported, some  
commercial feed ingredients are widely available and easy to obtain. Besides, it contains additional feed ingredients (feed  
additives) needed by livestock (Alqaisi et al., 2017).  
Protein is a necessity nutrient for humans and livestock to be affect the growth period, age, physiology, production,  
and body condition. Protein digestibility is the ability of the protein to be hydrolyzed into amino acids by digestive enzymes  
(Hou et al., 2017). If protein digestibility is high, the protein can be well hydrolyzed into amino acids, so the number of  
amino acids that can be absorbed and used by the body sufficiently (Ketnawa and Ogawa, 2019). If the protein  
digestibility is a combined process to be hydrolyzed into amino acids then the amount Amino acids that can be absorbed  
and used by the body are in low rate due in part large will be disposed of by the body with feces (Deb-Choudhury et al.,  
2018). Its well-known, protein is very important in tissue repair energy metabolism and for obtaining vital substances in  
body functions such as enzymes (Shah et al., 2020).  
Herbal formulation (Jamu) have been known for a long time by residents in Indonesia as traditional medicine and to  
improve metabolism in the body (Elfahmi et al., 2014). Jamu has been used for special targets not only for humans  
(Mosihuzzaman, 2012; Zhu, 2020) but also for animals (Alagawany et al., 2019; Zhu, 2020). Local farmers have also  
used jamu for chicken for a long time, and its use is increasing (Gaucher et al., 2015; Galli et al., 2020). Based on  
information in the field, some breeders who use jamu can increase their livestock productivity, for example Galli’s  
research fed jamu in breeders which increase quality of meat in fatty acid profile (Galli et al., 2020).  
Agustina et al. (2017) showed that jamu in liquid or powder form can inhibit Gram-positive and Gram-negative  
bacteria, because the ingredients contain bioactive substances. It was necessary to reduce the types of materials  
suspected of having the same bioactive substances. The use of jamu in liquid form as much as 2.5 mL/L of drinking  
water, is the best result of performance and histopathological abnormalities of internal organs. The use of 0.15% herbal  
concoction powder in feed effectively improves performance, reduces the number of deaths, abdominal fat, blood  
cholesterol, and gives the highest OD (Optic Density) value, which indicates that herbal concoction powder can prevent  
viruses (using a lubricant kit to test IFNγ (Interferon-gamma). Based on this description, it is necessary to conduct a  
Citation: Rusny R, Hidayat MN, Kalsum U and Masri M (2021). The protein digestibility of the broiler chickens fed jamu formula, a local herbal solution. Online J. Anim.  
research on the use of herbal medicine in drinking water to determine the effect protein digestibility in broilers. Aim of  
present study was to determine the effect of jamu to expand protein in vivo digestibility in broilers and for knowing the  
perfect level of jamu for ideal protein digestibility in broilers  
The materials used in this study were 40 broilers, husk, and herbal solution with 250 g of a mixture of ingredients, namely  
garlic (Allium sativum L.), leaves betel (Piper betle L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum L.), EM-4 (Effective  
Microorganisms-4) and molasses. The feed used comes from a commercial feed, namely B11A with the composition of  
corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, corn gluten meal, pollard, stone flour, crude palm oil, sodium  
bicarbonate premix, vitamins and trace minerals. While the material used to calculate digestibility protein, namely  
sample (feces), selenium ± 1 gram, 25 mL concentrated H2SO4, distilled water 100 mL, 10 mL 2% H3BO3, 4 drops  
indicator solution and 10 mL 30% NaOH.  
Research design  
This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 4 treatments and 5 replications, each  
replication consisted of 2 broilers so that there are 40 experimental units with treatment (T), namely: T0: control; T1: Jamu  
1.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water; T2: Jamu 2.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water; T3: Jamu 3.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water.  
Broiler preparation and maintenance  
The cage must be prepared before day old chick (DOC) entered, cage preparation is done carefully and carried out to  
install curtains and cleaning and sterilization around the cage with how to spray detergent and the tools to be used and  
wait until dry. After that, it is covered with husks with a thickness of seven cm feed, and the area of the cage unit used is  
60 × 100 cm. Preparations are maintained from DOC until the age of 30 days with a cage covered with husks. The  
treatment is given to chickens since the chicken entered the cage unit experiment until harvest. The number of treatment  
chickens was 40 chickens selected randomly and put into the cages of each experimental unit 2 tails. Each experimental  
unit enclosure is equipped with a 25 watt incandescent lamp as many as 20 pieces.  
Production of Jamu  
Materials used to manufacture herbal such as garlic, betel leaf, cinnamon first cleaned, then weighing 250 g each,  
then crushed use a blender for garlic and betel leaves, except for cinnamon ground using a mortar until smooth. Next  
third, the ingredients are mixed in one container. Addition of molasses and EM-4 (effective microorganisms-4) was also  
carried out each as much 1 L then add 10 L of water. Stir until all ingredients to be homogeneous (Jamili et al., 2014).  
Table 2 - Energy content of B11A feed used in present  
Table 1 - Ingredients of Jamu used in present study.  
Composition (%)  
250 g  
250 g  
250 g  
1 L  
Betel leaf  
Well water  
Source: Primer Data.  
1 L  
10 L  
Source: PT. New Hope Indonesia, 2019  
Feed and drinking water  
Feeding is done a few hours after drinking DOC (3-4 hours after the DOC is drinking). The provision of drinking water  
is carried out ad libitum (continuously), and in giving it must be clean and fresh, and the drinking water has been mixed  
with the herbal herbs that are given each day until the age of 30 days, and the giving is done according to treatment that  
has been determined in this study. The nutritional content of commercial feed B11A produced by PT. New Hope Indonesia  
is used in this study is presented in Table 2.  
Protein digestibility calculation process  
After going through the maintenance process, at the end of the study, fecal samples were taken from each  
treatment in the form of fresh ones that had been weighed previously to determine their fresh weight for further  
observation in the laboratory by the method of calculating protein digestibility, namely by weighing carefully weighing ± 0,  
5 g of the sample, then put it in the Kjeldahl flask. A mixture of selenium (±1 g) and 25 mL of concentrated H2SO4 was  
added. The Khjedhal flask and its contents were shaken until all samples were wetted with H2SO4 then digested in a fume  
Citation: Rusny R, Hidayat MN, Kalsum U and Masri M (2021). The protein digestibility of the broiler chickens fed jamu formula, a local herbal solution. Online J. Anim.  
hood until it was clear. Let it cool, then pour into a 100 mL volumetric flask and rinse with distilled water. Let it cool again,  
squeeze it to the mark with distilled water and then shook it until it was homogeneous. After that, a pan consisting of 10  
mL H3BO3 2% + 4 drops of mixed indicator solution prepared into Erlenmeyer, then Pipette 5 mL of sample solution into a  
distillation flask, add 10 mL of 30% NaOH and 100 mL of distilled water. Then it was distilled until the reservoir volume  
became ± 50 mL. Rinsed the distiller's end with distilled water, then the container and its contents were titrated with a  
0.0171 N H2SO4 solution (Adedokun et al., 2008).  
%CrudeProtein =  
   
Description: V: volume of sample titration; N: normality of H2SO4 solution; P: dilution factor.  
Protein digestibility test by taking 1 sample from each test  
Observation of protein digestibility by knowing the data on feed consumption that has been added with herbal herbs  
to drinking water and weighing the feces in the ileum. The collection method of ileal digesta is by fasting for 14 hours. It is  
given commercial feed as much as 100 g/head and drinking water for 10 hours before slaughtering after being fast. Then  
the chicken is slaughtered. Digesta was taken from the small intestine part of the ileum, after 1 cm from Meckel's  
diverticulum to a limit of 1 cm before the ileum-cecal junction. After that, the digesta is removed, and then the initial  
weight is weighed in fresh form from each treatment. After that, the digesta was collected and then analyzed in vivo  
(Adedokun et al., 2008). According to Li et al. (2017), regarding the digestibility calculation method protein, namely the  
following formula:  
%ProteinDigestibility =  
Description: A: consumption of ration (g); B: food substances in the ration (protein, %); C: number of feces (g); D: food  
substance in feces (protein; %).  
Statistical analysis  
The data obtained will be analyzed through variance using a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments  
and 5 replications. If the treatment has a significant effect, then the Duncan multiple area test is continued to see the  
differences in each treatment sample. According to Ervina et al. (2019) the mathematical model of the CRD is as follows:  
Y ij = μ + αi + € ij  
Description: Yij: The observed value of the ith treatment of jamu; μ: Real average value; αi: effect of treatment at  
level I; ij: error; i: T0, T1, T2, T3 (treatment); j: 1, 2, 3 (repeat).  
Ethical approval  
The in vivo study was supervised by The Animal Ethics Committee of the Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin and  
conducted in accordance with the basic animal husbandry and health protocols referred to in Legislation of the Republic  
of Indonesia No. 18, 2009.  
The results of the 23 days feeding jamu-treatment against protein digestibility in the cobb-500 broiler chicken presented  
in Table 3. The results of this analysis of variance indicated that the treatment has not significant effect (P>0.05) on  
protein digestibility. The treatments were T0 (99.56%), T1 (99.62%), T2 (99.68%) and T3 (99.71%).  
Protein digestibility is the amount of protein that is absorbed from food into particles absorbed by the digestive tract  
(Jonker and Yu, 2017; Cholis et al., 2018). In Table 3, the average value of T3 (99.71%), which is given herbal herbs in  
chicken drinking water as much as 3.5 mL, showed the value of protein digestibility as the highest among other  
treatments. In comparison, the lowest average protein digestibility value was P0 (99.56%) of all treatments. The  
treatment statistically has no significant effect on protein digestibility, but seen from the trend of research data, the feed  
of jamu with a dose of 3.5 mL can increase protein digestibility, this treatment has the highest value of all treatments  
with a value of 99.71%. Alagawany et al. (2019) stated that cattle that consume high protein could affect their body cells'  
metabolism to run correctly.  
Table 3 - Average digestibility and standard deviation of protein in broiler chickens fed jamu for 23 days.  
Protein digestibility  
T0 = Control. T1 = Jamu 1.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water. T2 = Jamu 2.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water. T3 = Jamu 3.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water.  
±(standard deviation).  
Citation: Rusny R, Hidayat MN, Kalsum U and Masri M (2021). The protein digestibility of the broiler chickens fed jamu formula, a local herbal solution. Online J. Anim.  
In the present study, the treatment given was in the form of jamu from several ingredients such as garlic, betel leaf,  
and cinnamon which had almost the same content as alicin, essential oils, flavonoids, tannins (Castillo-López et al., 2017;  
Alagbe et al., 2020), it’s were able to increase protein digestibility in broilers and could be antibacterial (Alagawany et al.,  
2019; Alagbe et al., 2020). The working system of feeding jamu in livestock, which can improve metabolism, the digestive  
system and reduce pathogenic bacteria that can affect feed consumption absorption (Alagawany et al., 2019). Reduced  
pathogenic bacteria in the digestive system of livestock so that the protein also produced increases (Galli et al., 2020).  
All ingredients' content works following their respective mechanisms that interfere with and even damage  
pathogenic bacteria so that their growth is blocked or dies (Alagawany et al., 2019; Galli et al., 2020). According to  
Castillo-López et al. (2017), alicin is one of the most active biological components in garlic (Castillo-López et al., 2017).  
Previously, Cardoso-Ugarte et al. (2016) argued that cinnamon's content has many compounds, namely essential oils  
(Cardoso-Ugarte et al., 2016). According to Jamili et al. (2014) when the betel leaf, garlic, and betel leaf are all mixed, it  
will have a robust inhibitory compound against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella thypi bacteria, namely tannins,  
essential oils, alisin, flavonoids, etc. which have their way to inhibit bacteria.  
The contents of the materials used which have antibacterial properties work according to their respective  
mechanisms, for example, flavonoids, tannin alkaloids, and essential oil, which work to form more complex compounds  
then disrupt and even damage the test bacterial cell membranes so that the bacterial life activity is inhibited or dies  
inhibit the growth of negative and positive gram bacteria, and prevent abnormalities in the small intestine to better the  
intestine's protein absorption process (Cheng et al., 2014; Rabinowitch, 2002). The effect of this study was not significant  
(P>0.05) because it could be caused by several factors such as provision of feed, bulkhead conditions, environmental  
conditions, provision of drinking water added with jamu in each treatment. According to Dersjant et al. (2015) and  
Olijhoek et al. (2018), the high and low digestibility of feed ingredients is influenced by several factors, including types of  
livestock, feed, types of feed ingredients in rations, crude protein content, and the way of providing rations, however this  
also shows that one of the factors that makes it insignificant is the amount of broiler consumption influenced by the form  
of feed and the protein content of the feed (Dersjant-Li et al., 2015; Olijhoek et al., 2018).  
In present research, the form of feed used is commercial feed produced in pelleted form. According to Milanovic  
(2018), good feed for broilers such as pellets and crumble is because poultry has high palatability to add to its  
digestibility, poultry feed dramatically determines the level of protein digestibility so that the amount of feed and protein  
content that enters the digestive tract (Milanovic, 2018). The protein content in the feed used in each treatment was an  
average of 22.75% from the starter-finisher period. Kaewtapee et al. (2017) and Olijhoek et al. (2018) stated that rations  
with low protein content generally have low digestibility and vice versa. The level of protein digestibility depends on the  
protein content of the feed ingredients, the amount of protein that enters the digestive tract, and the influence of the use  
et al., 2020). The addition of doses from each treatment also dramatically determines the effect on the digestibility of the  
protein itself, the doses used in this study started from T1, T2, and T3 treatments, respectively, namely 1.5 mL/500  
mL/drinking water, 2.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water and 3.5 mL/500 mL/drinking water, following the research of  
Kusbiyantari et al. (2017) which uses a betel leaf solution with a dose of 5% per liter of drinking water to increase protein  
The feeding of jamu had no significant effect on digestion of protein in broilers. T1, T2 and T3 tend to increase; 99.62%,  
99.68% and 99.71%, respectively. In summary, supplementation with jamu does not essentially influence broiler chicken  
protein's digestibility, but the digestibility increments with expanding equation, up to 3.5 mL/500 mL (T3) as the ideal  
level. Further studies with other local herbs and herbal solutions are suggested.  
Corresponding Author  
E-mail: mashuri.masri@uin-alauddin.ac.id; ORCID: 0000-0003-1148-7208  
Authors’ Contribution  
All authors contributed in research and writing, equally.  
Conflict of interests  
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.  
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Citation: Rusny R, Hidayat MN, Kalsum U and Masri M (2021). The protein digestibility of the broiler chickens fed jamu formula, a local herbal solution. Online J. Anim.